—A device to warn sailboat crews of dangerous boom movements; developed in EMA 469 with David Aguilar, Lisa McGill, Scott Sardina, and Jordan Wachs.

The EMA senior design spans two semesters; the first develops an idea into a consumer product, while the second tasks us to design an airplane, submarine, or spaceship. Over the first semester David Aguilar, Lisa McGill, Scott Sardina, Jordan Wachs, and I developed BoomAlert, a device to warn sailboat crews of dangerous boom movements. See also my spring design, LEVITATE.

If you want to watch our final presentation instead of reading, seek to 1:50 here.

BoomAlert alerts sailboat crew to dangerous motions of the sailboat boom known as autojibes. These occur when sailing with the wind and are due to poor captainship or random, unanticipable, changes in the wind. Immediately before the autojibe the sail is typically full-out, nearly perpendicular with the centerline of the boat. As the wind changes direction the boom quickly accelerates and swings across the cockpit to the other side of the boat, reaching rotational velocities of >2 rad/sec. These angular velocities are not very dangerous near the pivot point (gooseneck), but can reach 5-10 mph where the crew sits. If a crewmember is unaware, they can be struck by the boom, as seen here: (I would embed, but the video owner doesn’t want anyone to see his video. Begrudgingly, a link.)

To overcome this problem, BoomAlert senses boom accelerations and alerts the crew by aural and visual means. Here are the major parts:

Accelerometer Housing

We began our design with a sail on Lake Mendota to characterize sailboat boom movements. With a waterproof camera attached to the mast, looking upward at the underside of the boom, Dave simulated autojibes while I recorded videos of the boom sweeping from side to side. Returning to land, we analyzed these videos and determined angular positions, velocities, and accelerations, as seen on right. Based on these results, we decided to measure boom acceleration and trigger the alerts when acceleration crosses a user-set threshold. This threshold is determined by boom length and crew position along the boom, so that BoomAlert can be used on any size of boat.

The accelerometer box holds a 3-axis accelerometer which communicates with a microcontroller by the I2C two-wire serial communication protocol.

Control Box

The control box contains the system electronics, power supplies, and alert devices.  An Atmel ATMega 368 microcontroller compares the accelerometer readings against the acceleration threshold, and depending on the boom’s position, alerts the sailors to the motion.


View our slides [2.2MB]

NASA Kennedy Space Center

Summer at Kennedy Space Center

I’m in Florida at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. I’ll hope to share a couple of the cool things I’m doing here:
Here’s a map of the area.

First Week
June into July
GOES-O Launch
The Fourth of July
Family Visit
Great Smokey Mountains National Park
KSC Study Results

The Drive

Nothing real special here, I arrived in Madison at 17:30 from Germany on Wednesday the 10th and packed till 0:30 Thursday morning, making for a 25.5 hour day. Leaving Madison at 9 I reached Dalton, GA (~30 mins. NW of Atlanta) by 23:00. The Tennessee-Georgia border is quite hilly/mountainous which took me a bit by surprise, since it was already dark when I started going up. I was on the road by 8:00 Friday morning and arrived in Cocoa Beach at 17:15.

I’m staying on the small strip of land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Banana River, due east of Orlando. The Cocoa Beach / Cape Canaveral area is probably 50% tourists and is, as near as I can tell, thoroughly focused on the beach and NASA. I had a brief conversation with my hosts, Frank and Sylvia, before unpacking a bit. Hungry, I headed to Mio’s for some Ian’s style pizza (a Madison favorite) and walked around the beach while eating. After this I called it a night, quite tired from the three days of travel and to give myself a decent chance of getting up at 3:30 to see Endeavour launch.

Endeavour did not launch (thankfully Frank checked before driving out to the Cape) and I spent Saturday and Sunday unpacking and exploring the area.

First Week — 6/15-21

Kennedy’s quite a large center and there’s a lot of activity in the area. My daily drive takes me through the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and south of all of the launchers and processing facilities. It’s pretty cool seeing Endeavour on my way in.

The drive takes about 30 minutes, half of which is traversing the CCAFS before coming to KSC. I’m working in the O&C building (Operations and Control, I believe) in the industrial area, south of the pads. The building’s about 200m long and is where the Apollo Command and Lunar modules were assembled during Apollo.

The Vehicle/Vertical Assembly Building (VAB) before the LRO/LCROSS launch
The Vehicle/Vertical Assembly Building (VAB) before the LRO/LCROSS launch

As I’ve mentioned before, I’m working with the Modeling and Simulation group within the Information Technology and Communications Directorate with two other interns. Our task is to identify and potentially prototype an Augmented Reality (AR) interface for the new space suits. We’re basically asking what data can we show an astronaut to make extravehicular activities (EVAs) more productive and safe while reducing error. Some examples of AR: the yellow first-down line added to NFL games, the moving driver/car tags in NASCAR races, and the heads-up-displays in fighter jets. Thinking about an astronaut, we would like to display vital indicators, mission tasks, camera feeds, and other data inside the space suit’s helmet. As many of you know, this is not my normal line of work, but I have enjoyed thinking about the obstacles an astronaut faces while doing their mission and creating new approaches to solve these issues.

This week was evenly divided between orientation and some basic research on AR. It was a bit slow starting, but by week’s end I was able to log into my computer and knew how to retrieve voicemails. Endeavour suffered the same Hydrogen leak during Wednesday’s attempt, so the highlight of the week was the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LRO/LCROSS) launch Thursday evening. This was the first time I saw anything larger than an Estes rocket take off and greatly enjoyed first seeing, then hearing and feeling the launch. We had had some thunderstorms earlier in the afternoon and almost called off the launch, but we made the last opportunity and the Atlas V sent LRO/LCROSS to the Moon. Unfortunately, it was still overcast for the launch, so I saw the Atlas lift off the pad and ascend into some low-flying clouds.


The student ticket floodgates opened Monday morning and two hours later all 14,000 tickets had been sold. At one point I had four tabs open, reloading every five seconds but could not secure entrance to the ticket sale webpage. Thankfully my friend Lisa was admitted and, after buying her tickets, still had an active session and was able to purchase for friends (this may have been on purpose to keep groups together, but it was not advertised…), so I’ll be at the games.

Work-wise, the first couple days were spent recalling various projects & technologies I’d seen elsewhere (HackADay, movies, etc.) and doing some heavy brainstorming on new ideas. With some capabilities in mind, I began researching the current state of AR (augmented reality) and how it might be applied to spacesuits. This quickly spiraled into a full review of augmented reality, spacesuit construction, helmet-mounted displays, human-computer interfaces, and related topics, including Apollo Moonwalk accounts and video. (Watching that footage again was enjoyable, especially when trying to reach a dropped hammer…) After two and a half weeks of research, (today’s 7/6) I’ve saved and annotated close to fifty articles and have probably read & rejected four times as many along the way. I’ll spend tomorrow (7/7) and part of Wednesday reviewing and summarizing my research to guide our AR development (if I produce a nice graph or conclusion I’ll throw it up here).

During this research period we (my mentor Priscilla and fellow interns Keith and Pan) took a trip to the University of Central Florida in nearby Orlando. There’s a corridor of modeling and simulation researchers and companies in central Florida of which UCF plays a large part. With my engineering research background I enjoyed seeing labs where some of the newest ideas are being developed and gained a better picture of the overall M&S field. The take-home lesson of the day was that our goal should not be to make the astronaut more efficient or productive, rather we should be enhancing their ability to perceive and understand their environment. This enables them to make mission-critical choices based on data that cannot be quickly or easily transmitted to the ground for review. Of course, systems that do make the astronaut work more efficiently are useful and sorely needed, but they do not require much conceptual groundwork; once the technology and funding are ready they can be rolled into the relevant suit module and used in-orbit and eventually on the Moon.

GOES-O Launch — 6/27

Looking west in Melbourne, 1:15 before GOES-nowhere.
Looking west in Melbourne, 1:15 before GOES-nowhere.

I was down in Melbourne Saturday afternoon and had thought that the drive north to see Oth launching of the Geostationary Observational Environmental Satellites (GOES-O) would take around a half hour. The hour-long launch window began at 18:41 and I planned on grabbing a Hot-‘n-Ready pizza (craving since Germany…) on my way to the Cape. After a little searching I found Little Caesars and was headed north by 17:30, by way of the coastal mainland highway (Hwy 1). As those who are familiar with the area, this was a poor choice and I was about even with my apartment (Cocoa Beach) when the launch window opened. Pizza finished, I was still a half hour from the Cape and eagerly peering out the windows, looking for rocket exhaust. I reached the NASA gate and headed out to NASA Causeway (northernmost road spanning the Banana River) and was relieved to see the Delta IV still on the pad and weather to the northeast, moving offshore. My Causeway parking spot was about two miles from the launchpad and a couple minutes later the weather had cleared to start the countdown. For Shuttle launches the 3-4 mile Causeway is full of people and the mission countdown is played over loudspeakers; I was joined by about 6 other cars on the west side of the bridge and the speakers were not carrying the launch. I noticed some of my fellow watchers exit their vehicles and, eyes on the rocket, saw the engines ignite (18:51) and the vehicle slowly lift off. Being two miles away, the low, rumbling explosion was delayed a couple seconds but quite enjoyable once it reached me. The rocket exhaust was quite bright in the evening sun and as the vehicle accelerated I could not see the rocket body, only the plume. About 20s after ignition I could no longer distinguish the flame from the few clouds and I took out the camera for some plume pictures (on Flickr). Quite thrilled that I made the launch and its success, I headed home.

The Fourth — 7/3-5

Saturday was a beautiful day and made for a great, 10 mile bike ride over the Cocoa Beach Causeway which connects Cocoa Beach/Cape Canaveral with Merritt Island and Florida. After the ride I hung around the apartment till dusk and headed north for the Cocoa Beach/Cape Canaveral fireworks. I parked a couple of blocks from the beach and had a chocolate malt as I walked over. The beach was full of people and the weather made for great firework-watching—clear and comfortable. Two barges held the fireworks ~500′ from the shore while a multitude of boats were further out. The fireworks were good, see Flickr.

Family Visit — 7/15-21

My parents flew down on Thursday into Orlando and we had supper at a nearby Fridays. I’d last seen them in mid-May and enjoyed retelling my week in Germany and first month in Florida.

While I worked Friday they walked north and I picked them up on the way home. We headed south to Melbourne for supper at a good Italian/seafood place whose name I can’t remember…I’ll check the next time I’m down there. We stopped at the store for some necessities and finished out the night watching the Tour.

Saturday morning my dad and I went for a brief beach run while mom gathered some shells. After a brief respite, we headed back to Orlando to pick up my brother, then headed south to check out Bok tower. Built on the highest point in the peninsula, Bok is a carillon (bell tower) inspired by those in the Netherlands. The carillon itself is closed to the public and surrounded by a small moat, containing large, orange fish. Around the hill top is a well-cultivated garden which transitions into orchards. We headed back to Cocoa Beach around five and planned out our Sunday activities.

Sunday morning we headed to church then spent the rest of the day as tourists. Quizno’s for lunch, we walked through the Ron Jon mecca then changed for the beach. The waves were cresting at 3-5′ and made for a good couple hours in the sun. Around three we cleaned up and went through the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center. I was unable to get us all on-base and we arrived too late to see the Saturn V center (featuring a Saturn V, Apollo replicas, spacesuits, etc.). After heading through the gift shop we saw the new Star Trek on the KSC’s IMAX. The movie ended around 9:30, about five minutes ahead of a good storm.

I left Dan and parents to another day in Cocoa Beach as I worked. That evening we went to a real good pizza place, A N.Y. Pizza House, and is the closest I’ve come to Sam’s in Wausau. We took a drive south and a brief beach walk near Melbourne Beach before heading home. Some chocolate malts finished out the day.

I rode into work with Frank (my host) while my parents took Dan back to the airport, then continued westward for a day in St. Petersburg. They returned to Cocoa Beach Wednesday afternoon and we had supper at Carrabba’s, a good Italian chain (apparently there’s one in Milwaukee).

We got up early Thursday morning to drive to Orlando for my parents’ 8am flight, then I headed into work. All told a good couple days with the family and, I’m told, enough sun and relaxation.

STS-127 Endeavour

I had rushed down Florida to see Endeavour’s 6/13 attempt canceled 7 hrs after my arrival in Cocoa Beach. Weather and a gaseous hydrogen leak repeatedly delayed launch to 7/15, six attempts and a full month after the planned launch. The astronauts suit up in my building (Operations and Checkout, O&C) and I caught the walkout (the astronauts’ last, up-close appearance to the media) three times, leaving the photographers many shots to choose from. In the intervening period my co-worker Bec tried taking us out to the pad, but some schedule confusion stopped us just outside the access gates.

The launch was quite enjoyable. I’d previously seen a Delta IV (GOES-O) and Atlas V (LRO/LCROSS) launch, but neither approached the raw power of Endeavour’s launch. I was about two miles from pad 39A, just behind the press site and to the south of the VAB and large countdown clock you’ll recall from Apollo 13. Here’s a brief montage:

I was standing right behind a fence onto which my camera was mounted and continuously taking pictures, so I have ∼50 more of the plume after Endeavour had moved out of the picture; needless to say I was enjoying the experience.

I followed STS-127/ISS Assembly Flight 2J/A on NASA TV during its 17 day mission and was fortunate to get out to the Shuttle Landing Facility for landing (thanks, Frank). I was at the midpoint of the runway and surrounded by reporters and other, credentialed employees. The first physical sign that Endeavour was on approach were the double sonic booms, and I didn’t see Endeavour until it was midway through the final banking turn (since the shuttles are brick-covered gliders hauling tons of trash on return). The scrub brush surrounding the SLF prevented me from seeing the main gear touchdown, but I caught both the nose gear and parachute deployment. The orbiter was still going at a good clip and quickly disappeared behind more scrub, eventually stoping at the southeast end of runway 15. We had followed the orbiter servicing caravan in and watched as the trucks drove out to stabilize Endeavour’s systems and prepare for crew exit.

Two hours after returning from the runway the Crew Transport Vehicle ‘docked’ (probably the best word, click through) with the O&C building to transfer the 127 crew. This struck me as a bit excessive, but considering Koichi Wakata’s return from 4.5 months on the ISS, think it was done to avoid taxing his immune system. Anyway, I greatly enjoyed seeing STS-127 to completion and have a much greater appreciation for all the work that goes into every shuttle launch. I’m thrilled that I was able to see a launch and landing and count myself very fortunate, considering the impending transition from shuttle and the questions on its replacement.

STS-128 Discovery

I got to see Discovery twice during its preparation for STS-128, which launched (video) this past Friday (9/29). First up was a visit to the cavernous Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where the external tank (ET) and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) waited for the orbiter. Each shuttle launch is the culmination of multiple production lines, scheduled years in advance, and the VAB is a flurry of activity as the United Space Alliance launch crews prepare elements two, three missions in advance.

We began at platform C, the highest of the removable platforms, which services the ET oxygen vent. We moved downward, stopping for pictures, joining the SRBs and past the upper and lower Shuttle attach points. The shuttles are readied in one of three Orbiter Processing Facilities then rolled over to th VAB for mating to the ET & SRBs. Once in the VAB, the shuttle is lifted vertically, inserted into shuttle-shaped cutouts in the access platforms, and attached to the ET & SRBs. The completed stack rests on the Mobile Launcher Platform until launch.

While in the VAB, we stopped to see the assembly of the first test flight of the new Ares rocket, Ares I-X. This process is now complete and Ares I-X is the tallest vehicle to inhabit the VAB since the Saturn V. As some of you may know, the future of this program is in flux (along with the future of American spaceflight), but I enjoyed seeing what the future may be. I hope that President Obama continues Constellation and proceeds with the Halloween Ares I-X test flight.

NASA Summary

Describing my work at Kennedy Space Center was a bit involved this past summer, though now that I’ve returned to Madison I hope to give you a decent idea of my task. The Moon is an extremely attractive destination for future manned space missions, primarily because of its proximity to Earth and potential to answer many questions on Earth’s geologic history, the formation of the solar system, meteor and asteroid bombardment phases, human adaptability to low gravity, among others. While there is uncertainty in our near- to mid-term plans for human exploration, I fundamentally believe that we will extend beyond the planet by way of lessons learned on the Moon.

This past summer I worked with the Modeling and Simulation group at KSC, mentored by Dr. Priscilla Elfrey, with two other interns. Our task was, broadly, to create an interface for use by lunar astronauts, whereby pertinent information (vital signs, current task, path to habitat, seismometer status, etc.) is displayed in the astronaut’s helmet. The highest conception would allow the astronaut to simply look around his/her environment, and as their gaze progress their line of sight is tracked and any information on objects of interest is displayed on request. The astronaut will be able to display, manipulate, and annotate any object, location, or procedure; the overriding goal is to enable the astronaut to understand their environment and then communicate that understanding to the habitat/Earth. This will require many technologies to be integrated but this approach may be broadly called augmented reality (AR) – the real time addition of information to the world, as perceived by the user.

As I began this project last June, the multidisciplinarity (word?) of AR struck me as I began remembering projects covered on Hack a Day, among other places. Recalling these provided an informal indicator for the current status of the required fields while highlighting capabilities shared or unique to lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). I spent most of July in academic research, searching, reading, annotating, drawing conclusions from the literature, leading to seventy articles-of-merit. I made a significant effort to form conclusions between articles and disciplines to identify the most significant improvements to lunar EVAs, given probable mission profiles and expected technology advances.

The overriding conclusion from this research is that the function, role, and purpose of the astronaut will change from one of manual labor to a perceiver of systems, once continuous human presence is established and as equipment continues to arrive. To enable this function, the astronaut must be able to naturally and comfortably interact with physical and electronic systems, manipulating information with the same (or better) ease as physical tools.

The final product is a thirty-plus page report that evaluates seventeen applications of AR to lunar EVAs in the context of the literature, first-hand interviews with astronauts, and expected lunar missions. This report is still in draft, but I produced a summary poster featuring six of the more interesting ideas. I’m working to finish the full report and will post here asap.

Study Results:

A concept of how information can be added to an astronaut's view of the lunar surface.
A concept of how information can be added to an astronaut’s view of the lunar surface.

Towards Perceiving the Lunar Environment [.pdf, 1.5MB]
Accompanying Poster [.pdf, 1.0MB]

Keys to improving Extravehicular Information Interaction [.pdf, .7MB]

Great Smokey Mountains — 8/22-3/09

Friday, 8/21, was my last day at KSC. After a good lunch and wrap-up talk with Priscilla, I headed to the Astronaut Hall of Fame while my badge was still valid. Filled with relics from the each era of the the space program, the hall of fame presents the stories of the astronauts as they prepared, conducted, and returned from their missions. See a couple additional pictures on Flickr.

I hiked into 65 on Saturday, then Noland Creek / Springhouse Branch / Forney Ridge / Clingman's Dome / Forney Creek on Sunday, stopping at 70. I exited Monday via the Whiteoak Branch trail and was at Pizza Hut by 11:30 for lunch.
I hiked into 65 on Saturday, then Noland Creek / Springhouse Branch / Forney Ridge / Clingman’s Dome / Forney Creek on Sunday, stopping at 70. I exited Monday via the Whiteoak Branch trail and was at Pizza Hut by 11:30 for lunch.

All spring and summer I’d wanted to go camping but didn’t find the time. So, I left Cocoa Beach around 6 Saturday morning to reach the Great Smokey Mountains National Park in Bryson City, NC, by 5pm. My plan was to hike to site 64 for Saturday evening, then climb up Clingman’s Dome and down to spend Sunday evening at site 69, before returning to the van Monday afternoon. Heading north on Saturday, I had an hour delay traveling through South Carolina and some difficulty finding the ranger station to register my plan; it was dusk by the time I parked the van at the Noland Creek trailhead. With flashlight in hand, I began hiking along Noland Creek towards site 64 with the hope of reaching it by 10 (~4mi on an improved surface in 1.5 hrs…). My pace was pretty quick as I was a bit on edge from not being able to hear (the roaring creek) or see (confined to the flashlight beam) in any detail. Given my delays and absolute darkness, around 9:15 I revised my plan to put in at site 65 which I expected to be just around the next corner. Near 9:30 I happened upon a sign which indicated site 65 was .1 miles further down up Noland Creek. Approaching 10, it was pretty clear that I’d missed site 65, but having gone this far I decided to continue my original plan to 64, which, according to my dark-afflicted distance estimation, I expected to reach in 15 minutes. You’ll notice that the map is quite basic and I had difficulty determining where the trail crossed the creek. Continuing on, I came upon a straighter section and, scanning my flashlight into the distance, saw a pair of eyes about 1.5′ off the ground 100′ ahead of me. Stopping immediately with flashlight trained on the animal, it moved like a prowling cat, leading me to conclude that it was a Bobcat. So, with the Bobcat in front of me and no guarantee as to when I’d find site 64, I retreated down the trail a bit and had my tent pitched by 10:45.

I was up with the Sun Sunday morning, but since I was in a mountain valley this was around 7. After packing up the tent, I began northward and found site 64 forty minutes further up the trail. At site 64 I took the Springhouse Branch trail to get out of the Noland Creek valley and onto Forney Ridge. Climbing up Forney Ridge was a bit of work and, since I was on the west slope of the ridge, my right leg was doing 20% more work than my left… The tree foliage was pretty thick and I was never able to see my destination in the distance, though the decrease in stream size was a good measure of my progress. Two miles from the top I came through Andrew’s Bald, a region of small trees and mountain grass which afforded me my first views of the valleys and ridges leading up to Clingman’s. As I entered the bald I heard and saw some rustling in a berried tree and, as a family approached from the Clingman’s parking area, saw two little black bears and presumably their mother jump out of the tree and head for the woods. I was 50 m away so they paid me no notice, but mentioned them to the family as I continued towards the top. Trail improvements and passersby increased as I neared the summit parking lot, and I was relieved to find a water fountain at the trailhead. After walking the last half mile from the parking lot to the summit observation area, I sat and had peanut butter and crackers, jerky, and a Dew for lunch. I’d made good time on the way up, finishing lunch at 1:30, and giving me time to look around and rest.

Just finished lunch on Clingman's dome. They're called the Great Smokey Mountains for a reason.
Just finished lunch on Clingman’s dome. They’re called the Great Smokey Mountains for a reason.

The Great Smokey Mountains are so named because of their all-encompassing fog, which prevented any long-distance (>200m) views. It was cool to watch the fog rolling over the peak and into the valleys; it apparently gets clearer during winter and many years ago one could see hundreds of miles. Near two o’clock I began to descend towards site 69, along the Forney Creek trail. Over the summer I was not able to run or bike nearly as much as I’d wanted and I felt it on the way down, the legs got real tired of negotiating wet rocks and switchbacks. The map mileage did not include these switchbacks and, despite being downhill, my 6 mile guesstimate to site 69 seemed closer to 8. Despite this, I enjoyed watching Forney Creek form, beginning as a trickle near the summit and growing to a raging mountain creek 3m across. I reached the campsite around 5:30 and spent some time pitching the tent and making a small fire. I greatly miss having regular campfires (as we do at home), but windfall surrounding my campsite was uniformly damp from the ever-present fog. I’m ashamed to say that it took a couple tries to get going, but it did last long enough for me to have supper by the fire and to burn my garbage. Around 7:30 I called it a night (as it was pretty close to dark in the valley) and turned in after hanging my pack. Situated just above the juncture of two streams, the roaring of water dominated all other forest noise and I was quickly asleep.

I slept well and was up around 8 Monday morning, though pretty sore from Sunday’s climbing. With eight miles to the car (from 69 to the White Oak Branch Trail to the car at Noland Creek and Lakeview Dr.), I expected to leave the woods around one then drive to a hotel in Knoxville. The hike got interesting real quick, as I was faced with four unimproved (no bridge) creek crossings. This part of the Forney Creek Trail clearly used to be an access road and each crossing had a stone ramp leading to where a bridge would have been. The bridges had long been removed and I had to search for the best combination of rocks and fallen trees to make my way across; I hadn’t done this sort of stream crossing since Philmont and enjoyed the challenge and occasional wet foot. Unfortunately my pictures of these crossings are fairly blurry; the terrain and width of Wausau’s kayak course is good for comparison, though the volumetric flow rate was less.

Done, now let's get some lunch.
Done, now let’s get some lunch.

As I made my way down and across ridges, I was struck by the forest’s variety: one valley would be deciduous, then hardwoods, then lots of underbrush and a variety of trees. Though my legs were pretty tired, I greatly enjoyed walking through the forest and absolutely perfect hiking weather (mid 60s & sun, filtered by the canopy). Site 71 was quite expansive and would have been a nice place for day trips; one tent was up but I didn’t see anyone the entire way out. My hike ended with a walk through the quarter-mile long, two-lane Lakeview Drive tunnel. This tunnel has no destination; the road comes up from Bryson City, N.C. and ends at the Lakeview trailhead without any turn-offs.

I reached the car at 10:45 and, after getting a wrap-up shot with the trailhead, took the hiking boots off and drove into Bryson City for some lunch. It felt real good to sit in the car and at Pizza Hut; I was quite sore from all the hiking and the poor pack fit (my tnf backpack had waist and chest straps but was not long enough for a proper backpacking fit), but quite pleased with how well the trip went.

After a leisurely lunch I began the two hour drive to Knoxville, heading west along edge of the Great Smokey Mountains then north to Knoxville. This area is quite rugged and beautiful, I passed by Fontana Lake and stopped at Fontana Dam (part of the Tennessee Valley Authority’s chain of hydroelectric dams) for a little bit. Continuing, I began to notice lots of motorcyclers on the two lane highway (SR-28) traversing the mountains. Despite it being a state highway, the road had an incredible number of turns and a posted speed limit between 20 and 40 mph. The motorcyclists were having a great time, shooting around me at twice to three times my speed, despite completely blind corners. Photographers were camped out in a couple of the turns, capturing the cyclist’s form as they came around (they also took some pictures of me, but I can’t see how exciting a champagne van going 20 on a mountain road is…they were likely practicing focusing on moving targets). It was not until I saw a Knoxville area guidebook that I learned that the 318 curves I drove through “…is America’s number one motorcycle and sports car road.”

I reached Knoxville around three, and after cleaning up went found supper on the University of Tennessee campus. Tuesday brought me back to Madison to begin my senior year. I had a great summer, thanks to everyone who helped make it possible.

Laser Building in Germany


Just arrived from the airport.
Just arrived from the airport.

As I’ve said elsewhere, I’m heading to Germany to complete a sensor system I’ve been working on for the past year with Prof. Scott Sanders, supported by LaVision, GmbH. I’ve covered the project-specific details and have a couple documents here. I fly out of Chicago this Saturday (5/30) and will arrive in Frankfurt on Sunday morning. Monday (6/1) is a national holiday, Whit Monday, so I’ll spend Sunday and part of Monday exploring Frankfurt before taking a train to Göttingen.

Once in Göttingen, I’ll build the sensor and explain the analysis code. LaVision will then take the prototype and reduce it to a smaller form factor and optimize its function. I’ll return to Frankfurt next Tuesday, 6/9, and will arrive back in Madison Wednesday afternoon.

I took a bunch of pictures and posted them to Flikr; a few are included in the description below.

Trip to Germany

Saturday morning I took a Van Galder bus to Chicago and checked into my flight to Newark, NJ. There was no one else in my row on the Boeing 757 and I enjoyed flying around New York and flying over the Statue of Liberty and Central Park. I arrived around 4:00 and expected to have a two hour layover before heading to Germany via Air India. Since I was switching airlines I needed to check into Air India, whereupon my layover disappeared.

My flight from Newark to Frankfurt was only the first leg of an Air India flight to India. Since New York is a moderately large metropolis and India is a bit far away, flights are not commonly offered. As such, the check-in line was quite crowded with families traveling or returning to India. I spent ~45 mins in the check-in, after ensuring that I did not need to transfer my luggage from my Chicago flight.

Now, Newark is a bit of a weird airport in that each terminal has its own security check in; there is no secured passage between the terminals. As such, I rejoined my fellow passengers in the security line for another twenty minutes. Throughout check-in and security, I got the impression that Air India paid less for its berthing and terminal space than all of the other airlines. Things just didn’t flow as smoothly as one would expect in a major airport. Perhaps that’s how they offer a $360 roundtrip flight from Chicago to Frankfurt…

I had hoped to eat supper but only had time to grab chips, a muffin, a croissant, and a soda before boarding. Since I was departing in Frankfurt, while the plane refueled, my seat assignment was changed to an exit row, giving me more room for my right leg but less for my left (the door opening mechanism protrudes from the cabin wall). The flight itself was pretty uneventful and authentically Indian. I chose trout for my supper and had a croissant for breakfast.

We arrived at the Frankfurt am Main (on the Main river) Flughafen at 8 am Sunday (6/1), right on schedule. It was a simple matter to find my luggage and a train to the Hauptbanhof (train station). I got a little confused by their train station naming and nearly got off at the stadium in SW Frankfurt, but maps stored on my phone prevailed — not enough buildings, tracks, or people.

Reaching the station, I was impressed. I knew that trains were widely used in Europe – and planned to use them for all transportation within Germany – but it was not until I saw the Hauptbanhof that I began to realize their national importance. I think that an institution’s physical presence is a good indicator of its regional and national importance. If it is impressive then the people feel it is a good use of public funds; if it also functional, then it shows that the institution understands its purpose and the needs of its users. Trains are continuously arriving and departing, shops are open for any travel need, announcements are multi-lingual, and people are hustling about. Taken together, the importance of the rail system to Germany’s infrastructure is clear.

McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut, and Subway are everywhere, often within blocks of each other. Soda is pretty scarce, Coke is commonly available and Sprite and Pepsi are rare, but I found no others. Instead, Germans seem to prefer water and apple juice with gas (carbonated / seltzer).
McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut, and Subway are everywhere, often within blocks of each other. Soda is pretty scarce, Coke is commonly available and Sprite and Pepsi are rare, but I found no others. Instead, Germans seem to prefer water and apple juice with gas (carbonated / seltzer).

Once the cool factor passed, I looked for some food. Thankfully (?), Germany is overrun with McDonalds, Burger Kings, Pizza Huts, and Subways. I was hungry for a burger (my supper plan for Newark) and went to Burger King at ~9:30. Since I don’t know an ounce of German, I had one English/German travel guide & dictionary in my pocket and a different version in my backpack. I had saved a map of the route between the train station and hotel on my phone and tried to check in.

Frankfurt – 6/1


I reached my hotel at 10:30 but my room wasn’t ready, since check-in started at 15:00. I checked my suitcase with the front desk and picked up some more complete city maps. With maps and dictionary in hand, I went for a walk around the city.

When I was setting up the trip I had noticed a park relatively near my hotel and headed that direction. Consulting my maps, I saw that the park actually extended around the entire city center in a three mile semi-circle, beginning and ending at the river. Camera in hand I began. It felt real good to stretch the legs and the new scenery kept me awake, since I had only slept for three hours during the flight and needed to absorb the seven hour differential.

The park was cool and fairly busy for a Sunday morning. Biking is quite common (similar to Madison, but the roads are built more with bikers in mind and for smaller cars) and most people were getting some exercise. There was quite a lot a vegetation and these big trees which I don’t recall seeing in America. Anyway, see the Flickr tour for more. I kept walking in the park till I reached the river and walked over some downtown bridges and along the waterfront. I tried to see St. Bartholomeus’ Cathedral but they were holding service when I stopped by. It was about 13:00 and I headed back to the hotel, having circumnavigated Frankfurt. My room was ready and once I sat down the rest of the afternoon and evening were lost.

Frankfurt -> Göttingen – 6/2

I slept well and was ready to go by ~9. I would be heading to Göttingen in the afternoon and wanted to explore Frankfurt a bit more. I walked through the heart of Frankfurt but most of the shops were closed I went through the Zeil, a cool downtown mall with an innovative roof (you may have heard of it…) and continued towards the river. Frankfrut was holding a festival, Turnfest, along the river and in a historic downtown square. While there I didn’t know what was being celebrated/remembered, but apparently Turnfest is the world’s largest leisure sports and competition festival. Most of the activity took place in the city fairgrounds so what I saw was a small part of the festival, but cool nonetheless. I toured the Paulschirche (St. Paul’s Church and German seat of government in the 1800s) and a historic building with lots of flags. There was a stage set up in a public square near the Paulschirche and a band was playing. It sounded cool and as I continued to walk through I saw what appeared to be church service leaflets. By this point it was about 10 and was turning into a beautiful, mid-70s day. It was all in German so I started back towards the hotel, needing to check out of the hotel by 11.

Picking up my suitcase I went to the station and purchased an InterCity Express (ICE) ticket to Göttingen. I had a simple salami, cheese, and hard-boiled egg sandwich and Coke while waiting for my train. Göttingen is about two hours north of Frankfurt by train, in the middle of the country. The train was pretty nice (leagues above Amtrak & moving twice as fast) but I must’ve missed something when purchasing the ticket, as I twice had to give up my seat to someone who reserved it. I’m still not sure how or why they reserved the seat but was a little annoyed to be bumped by someone getting on two stops after Frankfurt, especially since there were open seats…

Heading up to Göttingen, nice country
Heading up to Göttingen, nice country

Anyway, the German country side is nice with lots of rolling hills, occasional villages, and a good mix of forest and farmland, quite similar to Wisconsin. From a distance the only difference is architectural, with Germans preferring closely-spaced, clay-tiled houses to American suburban and rural sprawl.

Probably a third of the size of Frankfurt, Göttingen also has a quaint, bustling city center contained within the old city wall. I searched the station for a good map but finding none, started toward my hotel relying on my cellphone map. I stayed the week in the Hotel Kasseler Hof, chosen by my hosts for its close proximity to the city center. The room was simple; the double bed was indeed two, single mattresses placed side by side with separate sheets and covers for each…the Ramada was the same way. The breakfast was much more wholesome (bread, sandwich meats, fruit, baked green bean bundles wrapped in bacon…) than most continental breakfasts in America. While I’m on food, Coke (and Pepsi) taste sweeter in Germany, possibly due to the predominance of carbonated water (with gas). I didn’t get used to this and you can imagine my surprise when my apple juice was also carbonated.

When in Frankfurt I had some difficulties with my laptop’s AC power adapter which I attributed to my international adapter. Reaching Göttingen, I verified my international adapter and realized that the power adapter had indeed been broken in flight. Hoping for a bad solder weld or a broken wire, I took the adapter apart (keychain leatherman…) but to no avail. Without my laptop/internet, I picked up a map from the front desk and took a walk about the city. Since it was still Whit Monday, few shops were open but the weather was nice and ice cream made a good supper.

LaVision – 6/3-5

I met the project manager, Thomas, at 9 on Tuesday morning and went to LaVision to begin work. In general, LaVision takes optical sensing systems and integrates them into simple and stable laboratory instruments. In the context of my project, LaVision desires to reduce the source/sensor complexity and integrate the components into simple-to-connect containers so that a non-spectroscopist can use the sensor. They have a nice balance between lab and office space, allowing the various groups to develop and work closely with new sensor systems.

Tuesday through Thursday I spent assembling the laser of parts we had preordered. Thankfully nothing was broken outright and of the two issues that appeared, one is largely solved and we have some ideas for the second. The main purpose for the trip was to bring the project team up to speed on the various component choices in the light source and for me to share some of the operation characteristics of the system. Friday we went over the data acquisition and temeprature-finding routines; this currently consists of four independent steps which will hopefully be rolled into one, real-time temperature finding routine. This was the most difficult part as I have comparatively little experience in molecular absorption and had not recently thought through the various operations in the temperature finding and simulation codes. Things came together and I believe I answered their immediate questions (they all speak English well). I’m sure that there will be more questions as development continues but I believe that the broad objectives are well understood.

LaVision also had an HP AC adapter so I had power and internet whilst at their facility, but the hotel internet proved intermittent. Skype was especially encumbered, it seemed as if the hotel had a bandwidth limit and any transatlantic video chat quickly hit that limit. This system failure was less than graceful as it prevented me from logging on during the next two days, eliminating any personal internet usage (it’d be a bit much to be posting to Flikr/facebook while at LaVision).

Internet issues aside, Thomas took me out for supper and a beer almost every night (and never to McDonalds/BK/Subway) and I got to learn a bit more about Göttingen and life in Germany.


Berlin – 6/7

Arriving in Berlin
Arriving in Berlin

I took Saturday easy but planned a trip to Berlin for Sunday. The Deutsche Bahn has a nice weekend program, an unlimited number of train rides for €37. Leaving Göttingen at 6:30, I took three regional trains up to Berlin. There’s a lot of history in Germany and I enjoyed traveling through the former East Germany on my way to Berlin. Perhaps it was the route choice, but most of the small towns we went through seemed to have stopped growing. In many ways it is the same as what’s happening in northern Wisconsin / the UP; where younger generations are leaving their elders for larger cities and modern convenience. Prosperity returned as we approached Berlin, arriving at the Hauptbanhof at 13:45.


After taking pictures of the terminal, I stopped at Pizza Hut for lunch. Finishing, I headed southeast, across the Spree River and past the Marie-Elisabeth-Lueders-Haus (part of the parliament complex). Pausing for a few pictures at the Reichstag, the traditional seat of parliament, I reached the Brandenburg gate and spent a little while reading the gate’s history. There were music stages on both sides of the gate and lots of people around. Vendors lined the first half mile of the Straße des 17. Juni (commemorating “the uprising of the East Berliners on 17 June, 1953” – wikipedia) and I slowly made my way through the stands, heading west.

Nearing the Siegessä wasn't exceptionally bright, so I'm not sure why this looks painful...
Nearing the Siegessäule…it wasn’t exceptionally bright, so I’m not sure why this looks painful…

I walked through parts of the Tiergarten and happened upon a concert at the Carillon. At 60m, the Siegessäule (Berlin Victory Column) dominates the Tiergarten skyline, so I continued that direction. Since it was still mid afternoon, I bought a ticket and climbed up the column through an interior stairwell. About 5m up, an intericate mosaic covers the central column and encircled by large, red granite columns; see the photostream for close ups. Continuing upward, the circular stairway becomes more like a ladder, especially when passing other visitors. I reached the top and took in the surroundings, appreciating the extent of the Tiergarten and all the traffic/activity. It was about 16:00, so I finished looking around and descended the column.

I was now southwest of the train station, so I walked along the Spree and past the Bellevue Palace. I couldn’t tour the building or see any interior pictures since it is the President’s residence, but both the exterior and extent of the building make it worthy of ‘palace.’ Continuing along the Spree, I passed the House of World Cultures and the Chancellery. As is evident from the pictures, both the Chancellery and Parliament are impressive buildings; they face each other across a broad square to the north of the Tiergarten.

My train departed at 17:10 so I grabbed a danish pastry and a soda for supper. I had forgotten my book at the hotel and bought a German newspaper that recapped May news stories in English. This was written from the German perspective and included a number of opinion pieces, I enjoyed reading the authors’ take on events in Germany and America, as well as the special on Indian/Pakistani relations.

My return trip stopped in Madeburg, Braunschweig and Kreiensen, a west-then-south route. I had an hour in Barunschweig and stopped at a Subway for some cookies (~20:00) and went on a short walk near the station. The city also had a large downtown park and, had it been earlier in the day, I would have walked through. Returning to the station I found that my train to Kreiensen was delayed 15 minutes, adding a little anxiety to the trip since I originally had a 20 minute layover. After hurrying to the Kreiensen-Göttingen gate, I found that that train was also delayed an indeterminate amount of time. About 30 minutes later the train came and I arrived in Göttingen at 00:30 Monday morning. All in all, it was a pretty condensed walk around Berlin, but an enjoyable use of my Sunday.

LaVision – 6/8-9

After too little sleep and some surprise at my weekend trip (on the part of my hosts at LaVision), we prepared a simple flame test for the sensor. We were unable to independently verify the flame’s temperature, but I was able to show how the acquisition and analysis pieces came together and get some preliminary temperatures by the end of Monday. I spent Tuesday morning summarizing the sensor operation, step-by-step and concluded the workday with a final demonstration.

To complete my German experience, Thomas took me to the Paulaner for some Bavarian food Monday night. My main dish was three meats: Leberkäse (liver-cheese that contained neither…sort of like ground ham), Weißwurst (a white sausage), and some other kind of sausage. In with these were some very good potatoes, lots of Sauerkraut, and Weißbier (light, almost sweet) to wash it down. It was a very good, filling, and greasy meal.

An aside: I gave you this amount of detail since many of you know that I have simpler tastes than most. Suffice it to say, I did not starve while in Germany and ate very similar meals to what I do in the states (calling it American would be improper, since the only truly American dish is a burger). If anything, the places that I visited had less food diversity, lacking Mexican and Chinese restaurants.

I caught a 17:20 ICE train and was in Frankfurt by 19:40, whereupon I checked back into the Ramada. It was still a bit early so I headed out towards downtown for some supper and a store or two. I eventually settled on ice cream (again, I’m not sure why it tasted so good for supper…) but found that every store closed at 20:00. Exactly. It was still light out and a good amount of people were walking around, but by 20:05 most lights were out and employees headed home.

Return Flight – 6/10

My flight departed Frankfurt at 8:05, so I was up at 5:00 to catch a 6:00 train to the airport. Reaching the Hauptbanhof, I prevailed against the ticket machine and searched for my train. My first choice train was departing gate 103 so I searched the station but only found gates 1-25. After 103 supposedly departed, I checked the route tables and realized that #22 would take me to the airport, departing in 5 minutes. I boarded the train and was a bit discomforted by my fellow passengers’ lack of suitcases; as the train left the station the train began turning northwest and I watched the southwest track I though I was on recede from view… Getting off at the first stop in northwest Frankfurt, I searched for another train back to the Hauptbanhof. Upon returning, our train went below ground and I emerged from gate 103, one of the subterranean gates that I saw no indication of in the main terminal. Studying the route information for the third time, I realized that my #22 train to the airport only ran on Sundays and, enlightened, found a train that would take me to the airport. This train departed at 6:38 for arrival at the airport by 6:52. So, where I had intended to have two hours for check in I now had an hour.

Thankfully, most passengers were already on the Air India flight from Frankfurt to Newark (having originated in India) and the check-in and security lines were relatively short. I reached the plane ten minutes before takeoff but was unable to get any snacks or fill my water bottle (empty for security). It was cloudy beneath us for the entire trip back, making it very bright outside the plane which helped to keep me awake. We arrived in Newark right on time but my two hour layover was consumed retrieving my suitcase and checking into my American Airlines flight to Chicago. As before, I had 20 minutes before boarding, during which I found a cream cheese danish and finally filled my water bottle. I intended to take the VanGalder bus back to Madison but was a little worried about the timing; the flight was scheduled to arrive at 13:50 and the bus was departing at 14:30. If the baggage claim was quick it’d work out, if it was slow or we were otherwise delayed in the air I’d have to wait for the 15:30 bus and not arrive in Madison till 19:00. Thankfully (and I was) things worked out and I made the early bus to Madison.

Back in Madison, I met my mom for supper at the Nitty before returning to my apartment to pack for Florida.
So ends my trip to Germany. To summarize, I read three books, two magazines, and a newspaper, used five German words, built a laser, took my AC adapter apart, ate and drank, took lots of pictures, walked over a mile in four German cities, rode trains for 15 hours, did some LabVIEW coding, saw historical places, and had a great time. I got quite a lot out of this trip and now better understand and appreciate commercial research and development. Moreover, I found that I could go to a new country and get around reasonably well. Knowing German would have made the trip much more enjoyable and I’d have been able to avert a few travel hiccups, but I thoroughly enjoyed this experience.

Thanks to my host LaVision, especially Thomas Berg and Olaf Thiele.



—An ergonomic laptop keyboard that does not constrain portable computer form or design.

Laptop computers combine power with mobility and have recently usurped global desktop shipments. Users are computing for longer periods in a variety of locations yet laptop manufacturers often fail to consider the user’s comfort and health in the computer’s design. Specifically, one cannot enjoy an ergonomic computing experience on their laptop without sacrificing the computer’s portability.

Ergonomic keyboards are commonly available (if seldom used) but are often twice or three times the size of the laptop computer. Having taken apart laptops and keyboards, I realized that a simple improvement could be made to a laptop’s keyboard to significantly enhance user comfort without decreasing computer performance or mobility. I developed a removable laptop keyboard that can be further separated between those keys normally operated by the right and left hands. The laptop remains fully functional when the keyboard is attached and communication is accomplished by either wired or wireless means. Such an improvement allows for an increase in user comfort and potential aversion of the onset of musculoskeletal diseases.

I developed Split Key over fall 2007 and entered in the 2009 Innovation Days, winning the Sorenson design notebook competition and taking 3rd in the Tong prototype prize. I enjoyed considering, if briefly, the full scope of the idea — ergonomic research, laptop and keyboard patents, market considerations, and design optimizations. Please see my presentation or disclosure for more information:

Split Key from Ben Conrad on Vimeo.
Presentation [.pptx or .odp, 5.0MB] — As given on 2/12/09.

Disclosure [.pdf] — Idea description, ergonomic research, and market potential. I would appreciate any comments and hope to detail the prototype creation on Instructables…as time permits.

The Build Process:

ZeroG Team

I enjoyed developing three experiments with the ZeroG Team during my undergrad at UW-Madison.  Participating in NASA’s Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program, I joined students from across the nation in designing experiments to be performed in a microgravity environment. Over three years, we submitted three research proposals, and NASA selected two of these experiments for investigation aboard the DC-9B Weightless Wonder.  This plane achieves microgravity (zero-g) by flying a parabolic path, during which the plane, occupants, and experiments experience zero gravity for 30 seconds.  My flights capped 11 consecutive years of UW experiments in this program; see below for descriptions.

Experiment Summaries:

2006-7: Measuring Capillary Forces in Microgravity

Our team designed an experiment to research capillary action in microgravity.  Capillary action is the phenomena that allows plants to transport liquid from their roots up to the highest branches.  In contrast to terrestrial applications, microgravity fluid systems cannot rely on gravity to collect fluids; instead the absence of gravity often ‘allows’ fluids to get trapped in the corners of tanks far from the tank exit.  In these cases, the fluid cannot be drawn out of the tank, and though unspent, is useless.  To better understand this situation, this experiment measured the flow velocities of two liquids as they flowed up five differently-angled surfaces (see video, below).  These velocities are a function of the fluid properties and the surface geometry; interpreting our results will guide fluid system design to avoid trapped-fluid scenarios.  This research can also be applied to transporting fluids in space without pumping.


2007 – Capillary Action – John & Ben from Ben Conrad on Vimeo.

2007-8: Spray Cooling in Microgravity

In this experiment we researched the effectiveness of spray cooling in microgravity.  Spray cooling uses an array of nozzles  to create a turbulent fluid mixture on some hot device for the purpose of cooling that device.  The hot device may be a microprocessor or laser diode, where instead of a heat sink and/or fan (as you find in your computer), we’re using a liquid cooling loop with fluid sprays that impinge on the heated surface.  Whereas the amount of energy that heat sinks can dissipate limited by the velocity and ‘energy absorption capability’ of air, using a liquid provides a substantially greater capability.  A simple schematic of the test chamber is below, as are our documents.  This research was presented at the 2009 Space, Propulsion, and Energy Sciences International Forum in Huntsville, AL.

Spray Cooling overview

SPESIF Presentation

SPESIF Proceedings Paper

2008-9: Continued Investigation of Linear Spray Cooling

Our previous spray cooling experiment answered some questions but motivate a number of others.  In my Junior year we proposed a new array design and a more thorough characterization of spray cooling in microgravity.  The new array design was precisely machined from a single piece of aluminum, as opposed to the array of tubes used in previous linear spray arrays.  Unfortunately, NASA’s support was reduced by 2/3rds and we were not selected to fly this experiment.

The new array concept:

And result:

The machined array with visible spray holes.
The machined array with visible spray holes.

Previous Years:

As mentioned, UW has been active in this program for a number of years; here are some of the materials I’ve collected which document our research.


The Effects of Gravity on the Structure and Chemistry of Mesoscopic Particles in Sol-Gel Systems and the Subsequent Effects on the Structural and Optical Properties of Derived Aerogels


A New One-Step Process for Weightless Aerogel Production and a Novel Method for Supercritical Fluid Analysis

2005: Long Duration Fluorescence Imaging of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Fluid Instability

2006: Dynamic Fluid Flow Due to Capillary Forces in Microgravity